skip to Main Content

Homegrown ISIS Inspired and Directed Terror Attacks—the New Normal?

Homegrown ISIS Inspired and Directed Terror Attacks—the New Normal?


Anne Speckhard, Ph.D. and Ahmet S. Yayla, Ph.D.


As the Syrian and Iraqi battlefields come under heavy siege and ISIS continues to sustain substantial losses, its leaders are calling for and even directing, via encrypted social media apps, homegrown terrorism in the West. The result—blown up airports in Brussels and Istanbul; mown-down pedestrians in Nice; an attempted IED explosion in Canada; a massacre in Bangladesh—the list goes on. And it begs the question: Is this the new normal?


The United States and its allies continue to achieve significant military victories against ISIS, removing 45,000 fighters from the battlefield[1], assassinating top leaders and degrading their territory, as well as ISIS leaders’ ability to finance terrorist operations through taxation and the illicit sale of oil, antiquities and sex slaves. ISIS lost as of May 2016, approximately forty-five percent of its territory in Iraq and ten percent in Syria.[2] Successful military campaigns can thus be credited with diminishing the group’s ability to exercise full control over large swaths of territories and its member base and also help stem the flow of new foreign fighter recruits to ISIS-held territories, who now take pause before traveling to Syria and Iraq.[3] However, as ISIS defectors told us—losing their territory will not stop them. Their plan if defeated on the military battlefield is to shave their beards, blend into normal society in Syria and Iraq and elsewhere, and mount terrorist operations, including guerilla attacks[4].


The ISIS fight is also clearly not limited to a military battlefield—the fight also needs to be taken to the Internet and social media where the digital “Caliphate” is currently winning. ISIS uses the Internet, around the clock and on a daily basis, with deadly precision to radicalize and recruit terrorists in multiple languages—having over the past few years successfully recruited an unprecedented 38,000 foreign fighters from over one hundred different countries, as well as inspired dozens of homegrown terror attacks with their polished and prolific online campaign. In this regard, ISIS is the highest volume terrorist recruiting group to date, having attracted foreign fighters streaming in from all over the globe—from such unlikely and far-flung places as Trinidad and Tobago, Australia and the United States.


In its online recruiting campaign, ISIS more than any previous terrorist group, has also learned to leverage social media as it produces a steady stream of Internet messaging, including carefully crafted, high quality videos and Internet-based posters, that promote their Islamic “Caliphate” as a utopian vision that falsely promises dignity, purpose, belonging and prosperity to the disenchanted, disillusioned, discriminated against and yes—even the mentally ill—who mistakenly buy into the ISIS brand. ISIS is adept at attracting the curious, then “swarming” those expressing interest (evidenced by their reTweets, Follows, and Likes) to seduce them into the group. As with all cults, when ISIS recruiters make contact, they at first cleverly meet the needs of their vulnerable recruits—providing those in the West with belonging, mission, adventure, excitement and visions of justice, dignity and purpose—as they simultaneously seduce them along the terrorist trajectory to the point where ISIS ultimately overtake the recruit’s life and uses him or her to destroy others. In Syria and Iraq the motivations for joining differ, but the end result is the same—overtaking and destroying lives.


The ISIS narrative and plans for the West, are outgrowths of al-Qaeda’s strategic messaging and plans, building into them the added plus of a tangible Caliphate that all can join. The ISIS narrative (as well as the al-Qaeda one that proceeded it) argues that all Muslims have an individual duty (fard al-ayn) to militant jihad and are obligated to join a mythical battle that is cast as defensive, because according to ISIS—Muslims, Muslim lands and even Islam itself, is under attack by the West.


This view popularized in English by Anwar al-Awlaki, the hallowed hero of both al-Qaeda and ISIS, is almost always a part of the ISIS mix for homegrown terrorism among English speaking populations—in Australia, Canada, the U.S. and UK. Anwar al-Awlaki, a charismatic imam and excellent English speaker, despite being long dead—drone killed by the United States in 2011—still manages to inspire from beyond the grave, convincing vulnerable individuals, Muslims and new converts alike, that their Islamic duty is to come to the battlefield to fight jihad and if they for some reason cannot, their duty is to bring the battle to where they live—to mount homegrown terror attacks. In nearly all homegrown terrorist attacks in English speaking countries al-Awlaki videos have played a part—from the Toronto 18 in Canada[5], to the recent Orlando shootings in the United States.


In June 2016, Omar Mateen, the infamous Orlando shooter, claimed to act in behalf of ISIS and was found to have been viewing al-Awlaki videos prior to his attack. He even told a friend that he wanted to be a “martyr” according to the FBI. Mateen, a second generation immigrant from Afghanistan, born in America, was apparently dating gay men and frequenting gay bars but was stymied from openly coming out gay by his highly conservative Islamic background—his parents were first generation Afghans. Mateen apparently fell for al-Awlaki’s promise that by killing and dying in a “martyrdom” attack, killing the gay “enemies of Islam” he could cleanse his “sins’ and go immediately to Paradise. Believing al-Awlaki’s lies that in a homicidal death he would win the rewards of “martyrdom” and cleanse his “sins” apparently found a solution to his problem—resolving what may have seemed to him an irresolvable conflict between his condemned sexuality and cultural/religious beliefs.


Likewise In 2014, Shannon Conley, the American, Catholic convert to Islam attempting to join ISIS, was also found to be in possession of al-Awlaki videos as she boarded a plane in Denver. Convinced of their ideology, Conley was not dissuaded from believing ISIS lies, despite multiple visits from the FBI. She even showed FBI agents al-Qaeda guerilla training manuals she had downloaded and admitted to considering carrying out a homegrown, VIP attack inside the United States as well as naming U.S. military and police as legitimate terrorist targets. As she deepened her relationships to ISIS via the Internet watching al-Awlaki videos, in chat rooms, and ultimately in Skype sessions with a Tunisian ISIS fighter who proposed marriage to her, Conley decided instead to travel to Syria to join the terrorist group. Thanks to a phone call by her father to the FBI, she was thwarted in that desire.[6]


The list of those convinced by al-Awlaki, ISIS and al-Qaeda recruiters of this extremist version of Islam (that most Muslims would not recognize as their Islam) is long and continues to lengthen as we see increasing bursts of ISIS inspired and directed terrorist attacks taking place in the West. The ISIS and al-Qaeda narrative that thrives on the perceived, and real, victimhood and grievances of Muslims worldwide has become widely disseminated at this point, and is tragically firmly entrenched in many sectors of society.


The fact that a substantial number of Muslims do in fact, live under despotic dictators, under occupation, do not enjoy normal human rights, and are innocents—even women and children—killed by Western bombs and missiles, as well as those who face discrimination and marginalization, even in Western countries, all powerfully fuel the ISIS narrative and need to be addressed to ultimately put an end to terrorist groups like ISIS. In the meantime however, these perceptions and realities make it easier for ISIS, when it reaches someone who already sees the West militarily active in Islamic lands and believes that the West is at war with Islam and Muslims, to take the vulnerable recruit further down the terrorist trajectory to believe in revolution, violent overthrow of the existing world order and adherence to a utopian dream of social justice, inclusion, prosperity and dignity for Muslims worldwide. Tragically however, the ISIS “Caliphate” will never deliver any real solutions to the pressing global problems it purports to address. The ISIS dream however, is a potent poison that many continue to consume.


While luring male fighters and female wives to the so-called ISIS “Caliphate” was the priority for ISIS over the past few years as they attempted to build an actual state, they have now shifted to calling for retaliatory attacks in the West—to revenge for Coalition airstrikes and to further the militant jihadi narrative and strategic global plan shared by both ISIS and al-Qaeda, which is to drive a real and enduring wedge between Muslims living in the West and their non-Islamic neighbors. With each homegrown attack in the West—from machete, knives, IED, car, and truck attacks—like those called for by ISIS spokesman Adnani in his June Ramadan address[7] as well as recently circulated ISIS videos, divisions in Western society potentially deepen as fear, and anger, chisels chasms of distrust and outright rejection on both sides. And when terror attacks carried out in the name of ISIS increases discrimination and marginalization of Muslim minorities in Western countries, when unemployment, despair and ennui increase in these sectors, this in turn fuels ISIS recruitment for even more attacks—as those carrying them out believe from their own personal experiences in the West, as well as by what they see going on globally viewed through the ISIS lens, that indeed Islam, Islamic lands and Muslims everywhere are under attack and a defensive jihad is indeed a necessity.


In addition to luring foreign fighters to its ranks, ISIS has also been working over the last years to recruit and quickly weapons train, ideologically indoctrinate and turn Westerners who come to Syria and Iraq back to attacking in their home countries. Recently, a jailed German ISIS defector admitted to journalists that he was invited by ISIS to join an elite group to train for and return home to carry out attacks on German soil[8].  He refused, but chillingly told his interlocutor that there was no shortage of ISIS volunteers to do so in France. In our ISIS Defectors Interviews Project[9], our defectors also told us that European members were being sent home to attack.


All evidence points towards ISIS continuing its global recruiting success and we’ve seen that the longer ISIS goes unchallenged on the digital battlefield the more dangerous it becomes. In the United States, Deputy Director of the FBI Michael Steinbach, states that the flood of ISIS adherents is almost impossible to keep up with and that predicting who, among the thousands of ISIS followers, is moving to violent intent is extremely difficult.  Likewise the FBI reports that the time between “flash to bang” is increasingly becoming shorter[10], making law enforcement’s job even more challenging[11]. And recent revelations in the Garland, Texas attacks make clear that ISIS inspired and so-called lone wolf attacks are not always what they seem[12]. ISIS is able to communicate with and direct attacks among its followers through encrypted online apps such as Telegram. Indeed, a Daily Mail reporter recently uncovered the undercover work of one of their reporters who admitted into an encrypted ISIS chat room was coached into constructing a bomb and picking a populated London target to attack in a so-called “martyrdom” mission. Thankfully the reporter was not a genuine ISIS adherent[13].


The fight against ISIS is thus not only a military one—it is also a battle in the digital space, where ISIS is currently winning. The battle with ISIS must be fought through a combination of “hard” and “soft” power measures, specifically through security and preventative measures designed to diminish the flow of foreign fighters to Iraq and Syria and by targeting the ISIS Internet and social-media-based narratives that argue that Islam, Islamic lands and peoples, and even Islam itself is under attack and that fighting to establish and uphold the ISIS “Caliphate” via terrorism and extreme brutality is the answer.


To effectively fight ISIS, we must also understand that ISIS is not just a terrorist organization. It is a brand that sells its vision of a utopian Islamic “Caliphate” and a path to justice to those who feel marginalized and discriminated against, fearful of their governments, and under attack by the others.


We at the International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism (ICSVE) are working to creatively and effectively fight the digital “Caliphate” and break the ISIS brand. Over the past year we have conducted in-depth interviews with 38 ISIS defectors—Syrian, European and Balkan former ISIS fighters – men, women, teens and parents of fighters – who have shared personal horror stories of ISIS brutality and hypocrisy. They’ve born witness to Muslim children as young as six manipulated into suicide bombings; systemic rape of Muslim women as sex slaves; massacres of Muslim dissenters; and the complete perversion of their faith. As insiders to one of the most lethal global terrorist organizations to date, these defectors who joined ISIS, and then risked their lives to escape, are uniquely qualified and are the most credible voices to speak up against ISIS. They are the real and disillusioned ISIS.


Using the voices of ISIS defectors denouncing the group we are editing these in-depth video interviews into short, compelling counter-narrative clips, that named with pro-ISIS names and openings similar to ISIS videos, can seduce those who are consuming ISIS products into consuming ours. But the message these vulnerable individuals and ISIS wannabes will get in our videos, is one of a disenchanted ISIS defector denouncing the group as well as the ISIS brand as corrupt, morally bankrupt, and totally un-Islamic. In this way, along with others, we are beginning to compete with the prolific online ISIS campaign, attempting to break the ISIS brand.


Our products—videos and Internet memes of ISIS defectors speaking out, subtitled and produced in the languages that ISIS recruits in, can be used for education, intervention, prevention and remediation. As cult expert, Steve Hassan states, there is nothing like a former cult member to shake someone out of joining, or disengaging, with a cult once partway or all the way inside.[14]


Our ISIS Defectors online campaign however, is not enough. Along with breaking the ISIS brand, we also need to develop professional helplines, and de-radicalization interventions to intervene with those already moving along the terrorist trajectory. We also need to acknowledge real and perceived grievances and to find creative and genuine means of meeting the needs of the individuals ISIS is able to recruit. as well as means to redirect their passion for justice, dignity, purpose and significance into meaningful and nonviolent solutions to these very real and pressing issues.


Unless we take the fight to the online battlefield in the same creative and emotionally engaging manner that ISIS does, more global citizens will buy into what ISIS is selling, and as ISIS operates online with impunity, we will continue to see attacks in the places we all routinely frequent: airports, restaurants, nightclubs, concerts, parks, trains, sporting events. ISIS attacks will tragically become our new normal.



Anne Speckhard, Ph.D. is Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Georgetown University in the School of Medicine and Director of the International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism (ICSVE)She is also the author of Talking to Terrorists, Bride of ISIS and coauthor of Undercover Jihadi and Warrior Princess. Dr. Speckhard has interviewed nearly 500 terrorists, their family members and supporters in various parts of the world including Gaza, West Bank, Chechnya, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey and many countries in Europe. In 2007, she was responsible for designing the psychological and Islamic challenge aspects of the Detainee Rehabilitation Program in Iraq to be applied to 20,000 + detainees and 800 juveniles.


Ahmet S. Yayla, Ph.D. is the Deputy Director of the International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism (ICSVE). He is also Adj. Professor at the Department of Criminology, Law and Society at George Mason University and formerly served as Professor and the Chair of the Sociology Department at Harran University in Turkey. Dr. Yayla earned both his Master’s and Ph.D. degrees in Criminal Justice and Information Science from the University of North Texas in the United States. Dr. Yayla served as the Chief of Counter-terrorism and Operations Division for the Turkish National Police.


Both authors are sought after counter-terrorism experts and have consulted to NATO, OSCE, foreign governments and to the U.S. Senate & House, Departments of State, Defense, Justice, Homeland Security, Health & Human Services, CIA and FBI and CNN, BBC, NPR, Fox News, MSNBC, CTV, and in Time, The New York Times, The Washington Post, London Times and many other publications.


More information about the ISIS Defector interviews is available in their just-released book: ISIS Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist Caliphate.


Reference for this article is Speckhard, A. & Yayla, A. S., Homegrown ISIS Inspired and Directed Terror Attacks—the New Normal?, ICSVE Brief Reports. August 15, 2016


[1] As explained by Lt. Gen. Sean MacFarland. August 20, 2016

[2] Chia and Xeuling (2016):

[3] As cited in Chia and Xeuling (2016):

[4] Speckhard, A & Yayla, A, S., Isis Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist Caliphate. Page 332. Advances Press, July 1, 2016. Washington, D.C.

[5] Speckhard, A & Shaikh, M., Undercover Jihadi: Inside the Toronto 18 – Al Qaeda Inspired, Homegrown Terrorism in the West. Advances Press, October 17, 2014. Washington, D.C.

[6] Speckhard, A. Bride of ISIS: One Young Woman’s Path into Homegrown Terrorism. Advances Press July 4, 2015. Washington, D.C.

[7] Yayla, A. S. & Speckhard, A. Hold On, America; The War Is Not Over and You Have Yet to Win, ICSVE Brief Report. May 26, 2016

[8] Rukmini, C. How a Secretive Branch of ISIS Built a Global Network of Killers. August 3, 2016.

[9] Speckhard, A & Yayla, A, S., Isis Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist Caliphate. Page 332. Advances Press, July 1, 2016. Washington, D.C.

[10] Comey, J. B., Threats to the Homeland. Statement Before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. October 8, 2015.

[11] Yayla, A, S., & Speckhard, A. ISIS Operative Salah Abdeslam: A Not so True-Believer Terrorist. March 21, 2016. Washington, D.C.

[12] FBI Director: Terrorist in Texas Attack Sent 109 Encrypted Messages on Morning of Attack to Terrorist Overseas. December 9, 2015

[13] ‘London is next’: ISIS threaten attacks on world’s major cities as UK police issue warning to British churches following murder of elderly French priest. July 26, 2016.

[14] Steve Hassan (1990) Combatting Cult Mind Control.  Park Street Press.

Back To Top