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Professor Arie Kruglanski and the Three Pillars of Radicalization

ICSVE Panel Discussion featuring

Dr. Arie Kruglanski, Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland

Anne Speckhard, Director ICSVE

11:00 AM EST

March 17th, 2021 

Over the past year, ICSVE Zoom events have explored specific aspects of violent extremism and radicalization, primarily with regard to preventing and countering violent extremism in the field (including online) and rehabilitating and reintegrated those convicted of terrorism. We have learned about programs in Austria, the Netherlands, and Lebanon, discussed the repatriation of ISIS men, women, and children from Syrian Democratic Forces territory, explored the world of white supremacy, incels, and the cult-like aspects of Q-Anon. How can we understand these programs and movements theoretically? Why do people become radicalized in the first place and why do some deradicalization programs work? Why do other programs fail?

Dr. Arie Kruglanski is an esteemed scholar of radicalization and terrorism who studies human motivation as it relates to thinking, feeling, and behavior. Dr. Kruglanski studied the innovative rehabilitation work carried out in Sri Lanka with detained Tamil Tigers. His recent book, The Three Pillars of Radicalization: Needs, Narratives, and Networks (co-authored with Jocelyn J. Bélanger and Rohan Gunaratna), has been lauded by experts for its nuanced examination of violent extremism.

On March 17th, 2021, ICSVE director Dr. Anne Speckhard and Dr. Arie Kruglanski discussed the Three Pillars of Radicalization and the future of deradicalization.

Dr. Arie Kruglanski is a Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. He directs a lab that studies human motivation as it affects thinking, feeling, and behavior. His lab methods include experiments, neuroscience work, computer modeling, surveys and content analysis. The lab has collaborative relations with universities around the globe including Italy, the Netherlands, Israel, United Arab Emirates, Poland, and Denmark.

Kruglanski’s work has been cited more than 50,000 times. It has been featured in the Washington Post, the New York Times, the Guardian, the Huffington Post, the Conversation, and the World Government Summit, among other publications. His theoretical work has been published in Psychological ReviewPsychological BulletinAmerican Psychologist, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, andthe Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. He has written five books: The Three Pillars of Radicalization: Needs, Narratives and Networks (co-authored with Jocelyn J. Bélanger, and Rohan Gunaratna); The Radical’s Journey: How German Neo Nazis Voyaged to the Edge and Back (co-authored with David Webber and Daniel Koehler); The Motivated Mind; The Psychology of Closed Mindedness; and Lay Epistemics and Human Knowledge. He has also contributed to edited volumes— including Psychology of ExtremismPsychology of Terrorism, the Handbook of Basic Principles in Social Psychology, and the Social Psychology of Knowledge— published by Oxford University Press, Routledge, Guilford, Plenum, and Taylor & Francis, among other publishers.

Kruglanski was a founding co-director and co-principal investigator (PI) of START (the National Center for the Study of Terrorism and the Response to Terrorism), at the University of Maryland, as well as a PI on a five-year Minerva grant to study radicalization and deradicalization in the Middle East and in South East Asia. He is now a PI on a Minerva grant for the study of refugees in the Middle East and Europe.

Kruglanski’s research interests include human judgment and decision-making, the motivation–cognition interface, group and intergroup processes, and the psychology of human goals. His work has been published in more than 400 articles, chapters, and books and has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Mental Health, Deutsche Forschungs Gemeineschaft, the Department of Homeland Security, the Office of Naval Research, and the Ford Foundation. He recently served on the National Academy of Science’s panels on counterterrorism and educational paradigms in homeland security. He is also the outgoing president of the Society for the Study of Motivation.

Kruglanski is a recipient of numerous scientific awards, including the National Institute of Mental Health Research Scientist Award, the Senior Humboldt Award, the Donald Campbell Award for Outstanding Contributions to Social Psychology from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, the University of Maryland Regents Award for Scholarship and Creativity, the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. He held the Regesz Chair at the University of Amsterdam and was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford. He is currently a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. He is a former editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and Social Cognition and the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and a former associate editor of the American Psychologist.

Dr. Anne Speckhard is Director of the International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism (ICSVE) and serves as an Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Georgetown University School of Medicine. She has interviewed over 700 terrorists, their family members and supporters in various parts of the world including in Western Europe, the Balkans, Central Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Middle East. In the past five years years, she has interviewed 257 ISIS defectors, returnees and prisoners  as well as 16 al Shabaab cadres and their family members (n=25) as well as ideologues (n=2), studying their trajectories into and out of terrorism, their experiences inside ISIS (and al Shabaab), as well as developing the Breaking the ISIS Brand Counter Narrative Project materials from these interviews which includes over 200 short counter narrative videos of terrorists denouncing their groups as un-Islamic, corrupt and brutal which have been used in over 150 Facebook and Instagram campaigns globally. She has also been training key stakeholders in law enforcement, intelligence, educators, and other countering violent extremism professionals, both locally and internationally, on the psychology of terrorism, the use of counter-narrative messaging materials produced by ICSVE as well as studying the use of children as violent actors by groups such as ISIS.  Dr. Speckhard has given consultations and police trainings to U.S., German, UK, Dutch, Austrian, Swiss, Belgian, Danish, Iraqi, Jordanian and Thai national police and security officials, among others, as well as trainings to elite hostage negotiation teams. She also consults to foreign governments on issues of terrorist prevention and interventions and repatriation and rehabilitation of ISIS foreign fighters, wives and children. In 2007, she was responsible for designing the psychological and Islamic challenge aspects of the Detainee Rehabilitation Program in Iraq to be applied to 20,000 + detainees and 800 juveniles. Her publications are found here: and on the ICSVE website Follow @AnneSpeckhard

This is the fifteenth discussion in this series of panels discussing ISIS Foreign Fighters and terrorist rehabilitation. The previous panels can be found at the following links:

Issues of ISIS Prisoners & Repatriations in a Time of COVID

Can an ISIS Terrorist be Rehabilitated and Reintegrated into Society?

Can We Repatriate the ISIS Children?

Terrorist Rehabilitation in the Dutch Prison System

Into and Back Out of ISIS: An ISIS Defector Speaks Out

Fighting ISIS Online: An Introduction to Breaking the ISIS Brand

Talking Terrorist Propaganda with a Pro

Terrorism Prevention, Intervention, and Rehabilitation with Juveniles

Community-Focused Interventions Against Terrorism

Are We Losing a Valuable Feminist Project in the Middle East?

Rescue Me: A Conversation with the Yamout Sisters re Prison Rehabilitation

ICSVE and Parallel Networks Team Up to Fight Violent Extremism

The Journey Back – Turning Away from Extremism and the Road to Hope and Healing

Asking Incels: An Insiders Account of the Involuntary Celibate Community

Understanding Q-Anon

Dr. Kruglanski presented his thoughts and then opened the floor for a lively discussion where questions will be most welcome. Questions can be posed using the Zoom chat feature or by Twitter to @ICSVE

Chat Log:

11:02:34 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : You can watch our previous events here:

11:03:07 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : Here is the ICSVE YouTube channel:

11:03:09 From Bartlomeij Piekarski to Everyone : thank you for sharing that link

11:03:17 From Shane Healey to Everyone : No shout out to Australia??? ??

11:03:26 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : The Three Pillars of Radicalization by Arie Kruglanski, Jocelyn Bélanger, and Rohan Gunaratna:

11:04:09 From khawla alhasan to Everyone : Hello from Khawla Al Hasan 

Amman – Jordan

11:05:02 From Dana K. Motley w/ Motley Matrix LLC to Everyone : Good morning from Atlanta. Very timely discussion considering yesterday’s horrific shootings.

11:05:15 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : Here is the link to the Breaking the ISIS Brand project on our website:

11:05:44 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : A Training Manual: Women in Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism:

11:06:36 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : The Lethal Cocktail of Terrorism:

11:07:56 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : Talking to Terrorists by Anne Speckhard:

11:08:19 From Harjit Sandhu to Everyone : Greetings to everyone from Rome; and thanks to Anne, Molly and the team of ICSVE for organizing these talks.

11:08:45 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : You can find more information about the Motivated Cognition Lab here:

11:18:44 From Michael Haines to Everyone : My apologies for being late

11:19:17 From ICSVE – Anne Speckhard to Everyone : Welcome everyone!  Shout out to Australia too now! :)

11:19:56 From iPhone12pro to Everyone : Greetings to everyone from Malaysia.

11:22:17 From Nizar Ahmad to Everyone : Greeting from Pakistan

11:26:17 From Shane Healey to Everyone : He is confusing motivation and violent extremism

Anne Speckhard after the event: Dr. Kruglanski is saying that motivations/needs are extremely important for understanding why people join violent extremist groups and like I have many times said, no one joins a terrorist group without it meeting some inner need, or at least their believing that it will.  In that sense he is saying their narrative speaks to the motivations/needs for joining.

11:26:44 From rogeliocastro to Everyone : Thank you so much, I have question: how can this search for significance be related to identity theory?

Anne Speckhard after the event: Dr. Kruglanski answered this well later on.

11:28:59 From Vladimir Kačanovski to Everyone : Hello Everybody from Serbia. Vladimir

11:31:13 From Roger Kluck – Projects for a Civil Society to Everyone : Shane, I do work a program that has moved 1,000s of extremists out of the life. I agree that the CVE movement has not paid much attention to soft solutions, because they come from military/security backgrounds. I work a program with 45 years of work in over 60 countries.

Anne Speckhard after the event: Thank you Roger for attending and sharing this.  I highlighted your work after you had to exit.

11:31:14 From Rebecca Cataldi to Everyone : Both radicalization and violent extremism are important but yes they are different. One can be ‘radical’ without being violent and one can participate in violent extremism even if they haven’t necessarily bought into a radical ideology ( for example they may see supporting a VE group as the best way to meet critical needs).

11:32:11 From ICSVE – Anne Speckhard to Everyone : We will have Roger Kluck speak next but I will read out a comment from Sheik Ali first

11:32:16 From Harjit Sandhu to Everyone : @Rebecca Cataldi, very well said. I endorse it.

11:33:43 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Ted Kaczynski Unabomber is an example of Home Grown Terrorism so is Timothy McVeigh

11:33:56 From Victoria Gurevich to Everyone : What is the role of ‘reality’ in radicalization? The proud boys saying that the white race is being threatened are unequivocally wrong; but those who radicalize to violence from experiences of minority marginalization (for example, the experiences of Muslim in Europe) are responding to realities. How are these motivations differentiated in your theory? And how does this come into play in deradicalization programming?

Anne Speckhard after the event: Dr. Kruglanski answered this very well later on in the event also and it’s a great question.  Often what is viewed as a grievance by a minority group is not seen so by others.

11:36:09 From Aya Burweila to Everyone : Hello Everyone, Aya Burweila/-Greece, Libya

11:36:12 From Razi Jafri to Everyone : Kaczynski is an interesting example due to his lack of network/community.

11:37:26 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : He attempted to build community when he got his manifesto published on NY Times.

11:37:44 From Harjit Sandhu to Everyone : I have faced terrorism a lot, that included quite a few ambushes, faced bullets, my father was kidnapped by a terrorist organisation, still I remain committed to de-radicalization. Successfully, I brought back quite a few violent extremists back to the normal life. I also managed to provide quite a few opportunities to the fence-sitters and prevented them from joining the violent extremists.

Anne Speckhard after the event: And we are so glad you survived dear Harjit!

11:39:17 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : The Tough Road is Hacking the Mind of a Terrorist / Violent Extremist as Harjit put it.

11:40:54 From rogeliocastro to Everyone : Thank you so much, would you think that in this search for identity significance young people are more susceptible to extremist narratives?

Anne Speckhard after the event: Absolutely, as youth are just consolidating a sense of identity during their developmental path of separating from their family of origin

11:41:00 From Waqas Wasti to Everyone : Greetings from Pakistan! I echo your thoughts on differentiating between VE and Radicalization Shane however we have seen examples where a mix of soft and hard approach worked much better than the softer approach alone. The problem with CVE is the long struggle and linkages before seeing any notable results!

11:43:14 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Hostile Intelligence Agencies have linked up with Criminal Organizations, has there been any evidence of Russia stirring up Violent Extremists outside Afghanistan and Chechnya ?

Anne Speckhard after the event: As we spoke about in the Q-Anon seminar one back (, there is a great deal of evidence that Russians promote this conspiracy theory as a means of turning Americans against each other and to mistrusting government.

11:43:24 From royce to Everyone : Proud Boys have never claimed white supremacy. It’s a myth. Members are multiracial and multiethnic. The leader is a black-Cuban. They stand on anti-racism. There needs to be an honest approach to these things. 

Anne Speckhard after the event: Enrique has now been outed as an FBI informant and while Proud Boys explicitly deny being white supremacist many of their leaders and statements as catalogued by groups that track them show otherwise.  That said, many who joined believe them to be non-racists and are themselves non-racists.

11:44:10 From Shane Healey to Everyone : My definition of Radicalisation is “A process that someone goes through where their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour move far outside the mainstream”.

11:47:05 From Shane Healey to Everyone : My definition of Violent Extremism is “Highly motivated beliefs and an acceptance and justification of VIOLENCE as a legitimate means to support their beliefs”.

11:48:01 From monica zaghet to ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg(Direct Message) : agree with Shane about both the definition of radicalization and VE.

11:48:05 From royce to Everyone : Proud Boys creator Gavin McGuiness has been a lifelong anti-racist. Proud Boys official stand is anti-racism. The problem with large groups like this is that there will always be instigators who join who will independently try to hijack the movements… History shows this happening time and again with every political movement. But the extremists have not gained the control.

Anne Speckhard after the event: This can be debated as the Capitol Hill riots were highly represented by Proud Boys and SPLC shows many of their statements as in support of white supremacy with no public denials of such. Canada recently designated them.

11:49:01 From monica zaghet to Everyone : agree with Shane about both the definition of radicalization and VE.

11:52:13 From Aya Burweila to Everyone : Religion is also a rich/primary source of values in many societies.

Anne Speckhard after the event: Very good point.

11:52:34 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Critical Thinking! ability to question and judge competing conflicting information is key. Scrutiny in other words.

11:53:51 From Aya Burweila to Everyone : Dr. Speckhard thank you for this enriching event. What is the best way to empirically measure the effectiveness of counter-narrative videos?

Anne Speckhard after the event: Molly answered this well and many of our peer reviewed papers also do the same.

11:54:14 From Ahmeddahir Hussein Osman to Everyone : thanks, Dr Speckhard

11:54:39 From Harjit Sandhu to Everyone : I quote Swami Vivekananda what he said in the World Parliament of Religions held in 1893 in Chicago:

“Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth. They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization, and sent whole nations to despair. Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now”.

11:54:50 From Shane Healey to Everyone : Molly, more social media coverage

11:58:13 From Aya Burweila to Everyone : Professor Kruglanski, thank you for this engaging lecture. Do you see cognitive differences between the recruiters and recruitees? And in your experience, are their signifiers of disguised compliance among deradicalization beneficiaries?

Anne Speckhard after the event: Sorry I missed this question in posing them to Dr. Kruglanski.  One important finding by David Mandel is that inciters often never commit explicit crimes but they are important because they motivate others to do so.

11:58:47 From Ahmeddahir Hussein Osman to Everyone : I have a question

Anne Speckhard after the event: Ohh sorry for missing this one also.

11:59:28 From Shane Healey to Everyone : Molly, Antifa turned the very peaceful BLM protests in the US deliberately violent! if you email me I will send you the link to a podcast of US police officers who personally observed this during last year’s marches/riots.

12:00:01 From Michelle Blaya to Everyone : Is it possible that there is people utilizing those non-radical movements/protests to be violent just for the sake of being violent? We could see that recently in Spain during the protest advocating for freedom of speech after a rapper was incarcerated. On those protest, some people apparently just showed up to break stores’ glasses and street furniture… Would we say they are radicalized or just violent individuals with a good excuse?

Anne Speckhard after the event: This mirrors a years long debate in France about if ideology or a proclivity to violence is the issue.  May be both…

12:00:50 From Shane Healey to Everyone : Michelle, 1000%! There is a tonne of evidence!

12:02:53 From Daniel S to Everyone : Michelle – maybe, but they could also be typical mob-mentality hooligans.

12:04:02 From Waqas Wasti to Everyone : Excellent elaboration Harjit! The reluctant youth at the fence is where you start! The results there are far greater than working on someone who is already deep down the rabbit hole!

12:04:41 From Michelle Blaya to Everyone : Thank you @Shane, @Daniel !

12:06:05 From royce to Everyone : Antifa are anarchists.. and it applies to their organization accordingly

12:06:06 From Sarah Marks to Everyone : ANTIFA is better understood as a movement rather than a group 

12:06:30 From royce to Everyone : Movement is a good way to put it… 

12:08:39 From monica zaghet to Everyone : 10 years ago, before my work against human trafficking and modern slavery,  while i was working for kurdish organizations and ngo’s in Turkey and syria, I tried my best to invite the local party (BDP now HDP)  to investigate and talk about the growing of DAESH…in order to elaborate a good and sustainable counternarrative

12:09:19 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Antifa is a Russian export what the irony is post WW II Soviets had perhaps as many Gulags as the Nazi Concentration camps, Pogroms that would rival the Nazi’s.

12:09:52 From Anna R Korula to Everyone : The latest research is currently being published section by section by ICCT and includes consensus definitions and much more on PVE  Handbook ed Alex P Schmid.

12:09:55 From Harjit Sandhu to Everyone : Thank you @Waqas Wasti. The middle-ground fence-sitters is an important group to focus on, while also keeping working on the others who are already deep-down the hole.

12:10:12 From Anna R Korula to Everyone : Shane you may be assisted by looking at the definitions there perhaps

12:11:35 From Shane Healey to Everyone : (@ 2:02:59)

12:13:24 From Anna R Korula to Everyone :

12:13:24 From royce to Everyone : Besir Wrayet, I think you’re right… the age of terrorism formulation as a strategy goes back to the 19th century Russian revolutionaries who were leftists, anarchists, Marxists, etc.

12:13:47 From Victoria Gurevich to Everyone : Radicalization towards violence is the development of new attitudes (people move away from the mainstream, nonviolence), and deradicalization is then thought possible because people can move away just as they moved in. What is radicalization/deradicalization like for the children/young people who have been raised in ISIL and their radical violent environment (some for nearly a decade)? In other words, those children never radicalized but were always raised as radical. (This question is largely motivated by the argument that many countries are making against bringing back their citizens from Syria – that the children cannot be helped).

Anne Speckhard after the event: Having met many of the ISIS children, I would say they are deprived children living without good healthcare, education and toys and look bored and lost.  Some get radicalized in the camps and more may become so if left there too long.  As children age they look around themselves for role models.  It’s true that in conflict zones and where there is a long history of war, trauma, etc. kids grow up with ongoing traumatization and orientation to violence and this is something hard to address.  We saw it in Afghanistan and see high rates of PTSD in Iraq as well.  Many turn to drugs also to cope.

12:13:49 From Kim Wright to Everyone : Are there any counter narrative videos for the far right/white supremacists that work?

12:14:21 From ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg to Everyone : We’ll be testing our new Escape Hate counter narratives against the far-right soon!

12:14:43 From royce to Everyone : Blood lust is a drug. People will join wars and terrorists for that reason. 

12:15:11 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Thank you Royce. During 90’s a surge of Terrorism and Violence surged. Gee a lot of pissed off KGB’s and and Stasi’s huh ;)

12:16:07 From royce to Everyone : Antifa believes in that that you say, Anne. It’s about destroying society as we know it… re anarchism. 

12:16:51 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Chinese and Russian view of destabilize and destroy existing systems.

12:16:58 From royce to Everyone : Terrorism was traditionally lead by leftists, going back to the 19th century into the 80s and 90s

12:17:06 From ICSVE – Anne Speckhard to Everyone : We will search for the experts on Antifa and have an event on them suggestions most welcome

12:17:20 From Michael Haines to Everyone : The ability to commit a violent act is an attraction for some people, then when that act of violence is not brought to justice it allows them to increase those acts of violence through to real barbaric acts

12:17:22 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Awesome!

12:17:34 From royce to Everyone : How true, Besir

12:18:02 From royce to Everyone : Anarchists in the 19th century were for violence, encouraged terrorism. 

12:18:06 From Waqas Wasti to Everyone : @Molly While a video shown to an ex-militant can give good results, how can we assure the videos and counternarratives on social media are reaching the right audience? Also the motivation in the case of VE propaganda is generally the relevance and charisma. Isn’t that the right approach to take when developing counternarratives on social media?

Anne Speckhard after the event: Molly answered this well in the session.

12:18:24 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : I live in close proximity to Russia and post 91 Terrorism exploded in Turkey.

12:18:32 From Michael Haines to Everyone : those increasing acts of violence are an addiction and a gateway to more

12:19:02 From Ali inizi to Everyone : I believe that Anarchism is not about doing something, it is about not doing anything, which is not to obey the system, so you can imagine if there was a war and no one showed up! meaning no one obeyed the orders of the system, the system will fall instantly!

Anne Speckhard after the event: Anarchists in Greece definitely wanted to bring the system down, with violence.

12:19:29 From royce to Everyone : Antifa is just a name, but they act like fascists themselves. 

Anne Speckhard after the event: Good point on the violent actors who may be labeled rightly or wrongly as Antifa.

12:20:33 From Daniel S to Everyone : It will be interesting to see how popular or significant Antifa is going forward. With Trump gone, is a lot of their motivation/purpose also gone?

12:20:55 From Syed Rashid Ali to Everyone : We are passing through an extremely strange politico-religio-security situation

12:21:19 From royce to Everyone : Antifa originated in Europe, they’ve been a around along time. 

Anne Speckhard after the event: I am not sure if what is being labelled Antifa in the US is the same as anarchist movements in Europe.  Stay tuned as we struggle to figure it out.

12:21:28 From Shane Healey to Everyone : the best comments/chat in a long time

12:21:59 From Harjit Sandhu to Everyone : How Muslims have felt: 1. When moderate Muslims went to Scotland Yard and MI5 to report hijacking of their religion and taking over of the Finsbury Park mosque by radicals led by Abu Hamza, sadly no action was taken.

Anne Speckhard after the event: Abdul Haq Baker gave a great presentation on this some zoom conferences back, link on our website under events:

12:22:32 From royce to Everyone : Dr. Kruglanski, very interesting information. Thank you for sharing. Love the individual motivational factors at play aspect. 

12:22:45 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Could I ask a question to Professor Kuglanski? since Antifa (with my limited knowledge) is it Soviet MOOTW (Means other than War) that is today integrated as part of Hybrid Warfare?

12:24:02 From Waqas Wasti to Everyone : Thank you for the response! I believe engaging scholars or voices that enjoy an influence on the targeted community for CVE messaging could be a great approach too!

12:24:21 From royce to Everyone : Daniel, with Trump gone, Antifa continues with its bad behaviour. They are anarchists and want a destruction of society to bring about a utopia…. Utopian ideas are dangerous and bloody in the end. 

12:24:29 From Besir Wrayet to Everyone : Antifa definitely as @Royce put it has European roots East Germany? and its True Believers, there people flying the East German flag in some parts of Germany.

12:25:14 From royce to Everyone : Antifa (and anarchist movements) was active in Europe decades ago, and have been around in protests in the 60s and beyond

12:25:18 From Syed Rashid Ali to Everyone : In a semidemocratic country with more ethnic groups and bad economy, how do you counter radicalism?

12:25:59 From Syed Rashid Ali to ICSVE – Molly Ellenberg(Direct Message) : How to conduct research when security personnel are not allowing to contact radical extremist youth?

Anne Speckhard after the event: Very good question.  I have been followed by security in many countries while trying to do interviews, it makes it harder and more dangerous for everyone.

12:26:42 From rogeliocastro to Everyone : Thank you so much!

12:26:47 From Viveen Brosnahan to Everyone : Thank you everyone for a very informative and interesting discussion

12:26:48 From David Lanigan to Everyone : Thank you to all contributors.

12:26:51 From Terese Kent to Everyone : Thank you everyone!

12:27:02 From Waqas Wasti to Everyone : Thankyou Dr Speckhard and Dr Kruglanski for an excellent session!

Anne Speckhard after the event: Thanks to all who participated and attended.  Look forward to seeing you next time around!

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